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Dear Valued Customer,

Thank you for registering for free access to HeinOnline's Slavery in America and the World: History, Culture & Law. We hope you've found the content included in this resource to be valuable for your research and teaching. We are committed to disseminating information on this important subject to the largest possible audience. To date, we've had more than 1,300 individuals and organizations register for access to this collection, resulting in nearly $9,000 in pledged donations to various organizations that support the societal advancement of people of color. 

We are also constantly striving to improve research experiences for all users. As with every HeinOnline database, new content will be added to Slavery in America and the World each month. This newsletter will highlight both existing and newly available titles, with descriptions of the most significant material provided by the collection's general editor, Paul Finkelman. It will also highlight research examples, so users can learn how to best utilize HeinOnline's powerful search engine. We'll also share feature updates, training videos, reference guides, and more!
Inside this issue:
Collection Summary

This HeinOnline collection brings together a multitude of essential legal materials on slavery in the United States and the English-speaking world. This includes every statute passed by every colony and state on slavery, every federal statute dealing with slavery, and all reported state and federal cases on slavery. Also included are 50 current publications from the University of North Carolina (UNC) Press, as well as more than 1,000 books, pamphlets, and periodicals on the subject of slavery.

All books and pamphlets were categorized based on four factors by our editorial staff: position on slavery, document type, jurisdiction, and topic. When searching for documents, users will be able to select these categories using faceting options to limit search results. Users will also be able to select one or more of these categories to help locate relevant books and pamphlets using the Slavery Quick Finder tool:

To read our announcement about the collection, click here.
Video Help

We recently released a video explaining how to register for and navigate the content of Slavery in America and the World: History, Culture & Law.  Check it out here. 
Quick Reference Guide

Be sure to check out our Slavery in America and the World Quick Reference Guide for even more about the subcollections, features, and tools in this collection.
View the Quick Reference Guide
New Featured Titles

Paul Finkelman, the database's general editor, has selected some important titles from October's content release and written a description of each title's significance.
1v. New-York: Published by Kirk and Mercein, 1819 - King, Rufus

Rufus King (1755-1827) was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who denounced some of the compromises over slavery in the Constitution.  He then moved to New York, where his wife was from, and became a U.S. senator in 1789.  He was a Federalist, allied with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay.  He served as ambassador to Great Britain from 1796 to 1803, and was the Vice Presidential candidate of the Federalist Party in 1804 and in 1808.  In 1816 he ran for president as the last Federalist Party candidate;  he won only 34 electoral votes.  He returned to the U.S. Senate in 1813 and remained until 1825 when he once again became the U.S. ambassador to Great Britain until 1826.  Throughout his life, King opposed slavery.  His most important antislavery role came during the debates over the Missouri Compromise.  King vociferously opposed allowing slavery in this new state although he was not a “radical” on slavery.  He continued to argue that the Constitution protected slavery where it already existed,   but, he wanted to put an end to its spread.  This pamphlet reprints the “substance” of his most important speeches in the Missouri debates.  Unlike many politicians at that time, the King did not write out his whole speeches, but spoke from notes.  He used these notes to create the pamphlet.  Here he sets out the constitutional, public policy, and economic arguments against slavery.  He argues that slavery weakens the nation and undermines public safety. 

Views of American Constitutional Law, in Its Bearing upon American Slavery
1v. Utica: Published by Jackson & Chaplin, 1844 - Goodell, William

William Goodell (1792-1878) was a founder of the New York Anti-Slavery Society (1833) and an active member of William Lloyd Garrison’s American Anti-Slavery Society.  Like most Garrisonians, he initially believed that the Constitution was so proslavery that abolitionists should not be involved in politics and should use the law only to protect themselves.  Goodell edited a number of antislavery papers, and in 1836 moved to Utica, New York, where he edited Friend of Man.   By 1840 Goodell had broken with Garrison and helped organize the Liberty Party with Gerrit Smith, an enormously wealthy philanthropist who lived just outside Utica, in Peterboro, New York.  From then until the Civil War, Goodell wrote a number of books and pamphlets, arguing that the Constitution should be seen as anti-slavery and used to attack the institution.  In 1852 he ran for President on the Liberty Party ticket.  Goodell’s writing on slavery and the Constitution were enormously influential in moving abolitionists into the Liberty Party.  Many of them later joined the Free Soil Party and then, after 1854, the Republican Party.  Among those Goodell brought into the Constitutional wing of the anti-slavery movement was the great black abolitionist Frederick Douglass.  This book, published in Utica in 1844, is one of the first and also one of the most important titles to use radical antislavery constitutional analysis.  Although not trained as a lawyer, Goodell’s constitutional analysis was strong and persuasive.    This is truly a must-read for anyone interested in how some abolitionists – particularly Liberty Party members and voters – tried to turn the Constitution from a proslavery document to one that could be used to fight slavery.

Slavery: Its Origin, Nature, and History, Considered in the Light of Bible Teachings, Moral Justice, and Political Wisdom

1v. New York: John F. Trow, 1861 - Stringfellow, Thornton
Thornton Stringfellow (1788-1869) was a Baptist minister who lived for a while in Fredericksburg, Virginia but had a pulpit in Culpeper County, Virginia when this book came out.  He was one of the most important proslavery theologians in the antebellum America.  Here Stringfellow argues that Christian “love” is the most important aspect of society and that slaveholding – and treating slaves in a Christian manner – is central to a good society.  The cover  page of this short book sets out the essence of this argument and the purpose of the book: “LOVE the motto, not LIBERTY” is the essence of a Christian society, and the “OBJECT” of the book is to demonstrate that “Truth is spoken in Love on the subject of Abolitionism. Its character freely, thoroughly to be discussed in the light of God's word, but with careful avoidance of personalities or ascription of motives. Hoping all things. Thinking no evil.”  The book is predicated on notions of race and the idea that whites, being superior to blacks, must take care of them through slavery.  He offers an extended analysis of biblical history to show that the Bible approves of slavery.  He argues that the Bible requires all people – that is northerners in the US – to obey the laws of the government.   “On the subject of submission and obedience to an earthly government by the followers of Christ, we have the following plain instruction by the Apostle Paul to the Church, (or rather the churches, for there were several of them,) planted in the city of Rome.”   This analysis, of course, meant that opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law was un-Christian.  He similarly refutes (according to his reading of the Bible) provisions of Mosaic law such as those involving “man stealing” and prohibitions against returning runaway slaves which abolitionists used to attack slavery.  He ends the book by turning antislavery theology on its head.  Abolitionist of course often used the Exodus story to argue that slavery violated God’s law.  Stringfellow, using racial arguments turns this around, asserting “By Moses he [God] released the Israelites, the superior race, from this bondage to the inferior, and visited his wrath upon the usurpers of his power for their unnatural and savage cruelty.”  In other words, the Israelites were racially superior to the Egyptians, so according to Stringfellow, the enslavement of the Israelites violated God’s law.  Stringfellow then ties this to the story of Noah, which he and other southern ministers claimed led to the creation of blacks, as the descendants of Noah’s son Ham.  So, Stringfellow concludes: “He [God] had delegated his power to Shem and Japheth to control Ham. But he never had delegated his power to Ham to rule over Shem or Japheth. The divine subordination of these races is written in the Scriptures for our learning. It is only necessary to look upon the domestic and national fields of experiment up to the present period of the world's history, to satisfy us that God's plan of subordinating individuals and races is wise, humane and good."
Significantly, this book was published in New York City in 1861, just as the Civil War was about to begin.

Journal of the Life, Gospel Labours, and Christian Experiences of That Faithful Minister of Jesus Christ, John Woolman, Late of Mount-Holly, in the Province of New Jersey, North America

1v. Washington: Thomas Hurst, 1840 - Woolman, John
John Woolman (1720-1772) was the most important Quaker abolitionist in pre-Revolutionary America.  He was raised and lived in Mount Holly in Burlington County, New Jersey, although for much of his adult life he was on the road, urging fellow Quakers to give up slaveholding.  His most important book, Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes (1754) revolutionized Quaker thought and helped lead to most Quaker meetings denouncing slavery and slaveholding.   Not all Quakers had given up slaveholding by the time of his death, in 1772, but he had dramatically pushed the faith in that direction.  His statement urging Quakers to practice the "fair treatment of people of all races" is part of the modern Friends' Testimony of Equality.  Woolman died of smallpox while on a visit to England in 1772, and is buried in York.  Two years later his Journal was posthumously published in Philadelphia.  This pamphlet is a full reprint of that publication, with a new introduction.  It is an example of how faith and antislavery merged in the mid-18th century and continued until the end of slavery. The reprinting also illustrates how opponents of slavery tried to keep their "classics" in print and available to each new generation.

Crime against Kansas: The Apologies for the Crime: The True Remedy: Speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, in the Senate of the United States, 19th and 20th May, 1856
1v. Washington: Buell & Blanchard, 1856 - Sumner, Charles

Charles Sumner (1811-1874) was a Harvard-educated lawyer and free soil antislavery politician.  In 1849 he argued, and lost, the first school desegregation case in the United States, Roberts v. The City of Boston (Mass., 1850).  In 1851 he was elected to the Senate as a Free Soil Democrat.  In 1854 he aligned with the new Republican Party and remained in the Senate until his death in 1874.  During this period he was among the most important opponents of slavery and advocates of civil rights and racial equality in the country.  His “Crime of Kansas” speech was one of his most important and famous orations, given on the floor of the Senate over a two-day period.  It was also personally his most consequential.   He gave the speech at a time when a mini-civil war, known as “Bleed Kansas,” had erupted between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers of the Kansas Territory.  In this speech he personally attacked Senator Stephen A. Douglass, the main author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the leading southern sponsor of the act, Andrew Butler, an obsessively proslavery senator from South Carolina.  He mocked them with references to the fictional Don Quixote: “I must say something of a general character, particularly in response to what has fallen from senators who have raised themselves to eminence on this floor in championship of human wrongs;      for I mean the senator from South Carolina [Mr. BUTLER], and the senator from Illinois [Mr. DOUGLAS], who, though unlike as Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, yet, like this couple, sally forth together in the same adventure.”  He then aimed his sarcasm directly at Butler:

"The senator from South Carolina has read many books of 
chivalry and believes himself a chivalrous knight with sentiments of honor and courage. Of course, he has chosen a mistress to whom he has made his vows, and who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean the harlot, slavery. For her, his tongue is always profuse in words. Let her be impeached in character, or any proposition made to shut her out from the extension of her wantonness, and no extravagance of manner or hardihood of assertion is then too great for this senator.   The frenzy of Don Quixote in behalf of his wench Dulcinea del Toboso is all surpassed."  This was in part payback for Butler’s vicious attacks on Sumner, including allegations (which were in fact completely untrue) that he opposed slavery because he was involved sexually with black women.
Sumner’s attack on Butler, however, was almost too precise, because everyone in the Senate knew that Butler, in fact, kept a slave mistress. Thus, Sumner’s allusion to Butler having “a mistress to whom he has made his vows . . . I mean the harlot, slavery” was clearly both a political shot and a personal one.
When Sumner gave this speech he did not realize that Butler was not on the floor of the Senate.  This was considered a breach of senatorial courtesy, as was, in the minds of some southerners, Sumner’s reference to Butler’s mistress.

Two days later Congressman Preston Brooks, who was Butler’s cousin, snuck up behind Sumner while he was sitting at his desk and began beating him on the back of the head with his cane.  Another South Carolinian, Rep. Laurence M. Keitt, stood guard waving a pistol to prevent anyone from interfering in Brooks’s sneak attack.   When the “caning of Sumner” was over the Massachusetts senator was bloody and unconscious.  Sumner would remain a senator 
but was absent for three years during a long convalescence.  Northerners point to his empty chair in the Senate as the embodiment of the violence and lawlessness of southern slave owners. Modern scholars believe he suffered some permanent brain damage from the attack.   It left him with persistent pain throughout the rest of his life. Politically, the attack made Sumner a hero and energized the Republicans in their attacks on slavery.  
This pamphlet version of the speech was published after the attack on Sumner and is a famous and important example of how debates in Congress became part of the larger struggle against slavery during the 1850s.
Editor's Picks

While browsing Slavery in America and the World: History, Culture & Law, you’ll notice gold stars next to some of the titles. We call them “Editor’s Picks.” Paul Finkelman, the general editor, has chosen what he thinks are the most important titles to be found in this collection.

Examples of Editor's Picks:

1v. New York: American Anti-slavery Society, 1844; New York, Negro Universities Press, 1969 - Phillips, Wendell; Madison, James
1v. Boston: Allen and Ticknor, 1833 - Child, Lydia Maria
1v. Miami, Fla, Mnemosyne Pub. Co, 1969 - Cobb, Thomas Read Rootes
1v. Boston, Fields, Osgood & Co., 1869  -  May, Samuel J.
1v. Boston, B. Marsh, 1845 - Spooner, Lysander
Searching the Collection

To search the full text of all documents and metadata included in the database, use the main search bar located at the top of the page.


Searching Example

The advanced search tool enables users to perform a more specific search. For example, search for "underground railroad"  in All Titles. 


Once you get your results, you can refine them using the facets on the left side of the page. Terms matching search criteria are highlighted in yellow. 


Use the tools located on the right side of search result to download, print, or email the material, or save any document to a MyHein personal research account.

Don't have a MyHein account? Create one for free here!
Maryland State Law Library Contributions

We would like to thank the Maryland State Law Library for their contributions to this collection. They provided us with 8 titles that are forthcoming:

The American Colonization Society, 1817-1840
1v. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1919 - Fox, Early Lee

Colonization of the Free Colored Population of Maryland, and Such Slaves as May Hereafter Become Free. Statement of Facts, for the Use of Those Who Have Not Yet Reflected on This Important Subject
1v. Baltimore: Managers Appointed by the State of Maryland, 1832 - Maryland. Board of Managers for Removing the Free People of Color

Brief Statement of Facts, Shewing the Origin, Progress, and Necessity of African Colonization: Addressed to the Citizens of the State of Maryland: Also, a Short Appeal in Favor of the Cause
1v. Baltimore: Printed by J.D. Toy, 1836

An Address Delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Maryland State Colonization Society: In the City of Annapolis, January 23, 1835
1v. Baltimore, Md.: Printed by Sands & Neilson, 1835 - Harper, Charles C.

The ... Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Maryland State Colonization Society to the Members and the Public
1v. Baltimore, Md.: John D. Toy - Maryland State Colonization Society

The Ninth Annual Report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States: With an Appendix
1v. Washington: Printed by Way & Gideon, 1826 - American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States

Maryland in Liberia: A History of the Colony Planted by the Maryland State Colonization Society under the Auspices of the State of Maryland, U.S., at Cape Palmas on the South-West Coast of Africa, 1833-1853: A Paper Read Before the Maryland Historical Society, March 9th, 1885
1v. Baltimore: [s.n.], 1885 (Baltimore: John Murphy & Co.) - Latrobe, John H.B. (John Hazlehurst Boneval), 1803-1891

Journal of Daniel Crocker: A Descendant of Africa, from the Time of Leaving New York, in the Ship Elizabeth, Capt. Sebor, on a voyage for Sherbro, in Africa, in Company with Three Agents, and About Ninety Persons of Colour: With an Appendix
1v. Baltimore: Published by Edward J. Coale, in Aid of the Funds of the Maryland Auxiliary Colonization Society, 1820 (John D. Troy, Printer) - Coker, Daniel

Keep an eye out for these titles, coming soon to HeinOnline!
Coming Soon

Here is a list of other titles that will be added to the collection in the coming months.

Confession, Trial and Execution of Nat Turner, the Negro Insurrectionist; Also, a List of Persons Murdered in the Insurrection in Southampton County, Virginia on the 21st and 22nd of August, 2831, with Introductory Remarks
1v. New York: AMS Press, 1975 - Gray, T.R.
Tendency of the Christian Religion to Promote Genuine Liberty: A Sermon, Preached at the Annual Thanksgiving, December 4, 1845
1v. Rochester: Printed by P. Canfield, 1845 - Hill, Robert W.

Utica Convention: Voice of New-York: Proceedings of the Utica Convention, February 16, 1848, with the Speeches of John Van Buren, George Rathbun, &c.
1v. Albany: Albany Atlas, 1848 

Selected American Speeches on Basic Issues, 1850-1950
1v. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1960 - Brandt, Carl G.; Shafter, Edward M., Jr., Editors

Desultory Remarks on the Question of Extending Slavery into Missouri
1v. Westchester: Lewis Marshall, 1856 - Darlington, William
Testimonials from Database Users

"I want to thank Kevin and the people at Hein for this generous act. This is an important collection for anyone who wishes to understand our ongoing attitudes and problems about race. I hope many of you and especially students will use this collection."

-Michael Slinger, HeinOnline Blog

"This is amazing news for students (and professors) of small institutions like my own. Many thanks to Paul for putting this collection together, and Hein for making it widely available."

-Nathan R. Kozuskanich, HeinOnline Blog

"I'm a librarian with liaison responsibilities for Black Studies at my institution, and I am also an amateur genealogist, currently trying to trace several branches of my family beyond the other side of "The 1870 Wall."  I'm only two pages in on a document detailing Texas judicial cases, and I HAVE to stop and say THANK YOU.  THANK YOU.  THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THIS ACCESS."

-Tracey Hughes, HeinOnline Blog


"I can’t recommend this enough. And I can’t thank HeinOnline enough for this act of corporate citizenship."

- Judy G. Russell, The Legal Genealogist

To read the full blog post, click here.

As Seen on Twitter

Jen Black ‏@blackjen1  Oct 19
Amazing new resource! pls share: #digitalhumanities @lizcovart @TradeCardCarl @AHAhistorians @C19Americanists @ncph 

Matt Stoller ‏@matthewstoller  Oct 16
Very cool. A free historical database of all known legal documentation on slavery in the English speaking world. 

Laura Reiner ‏@laurareiner  Oct 12
.. Slavery in America and the World free to anyone with an interest in the subject. … @HeinOnline #doingitright

Baltimore LawLibrary ‏@ubaltlawlibrary  Oct 6
We've just added @HeinOnline's Slavery in America & the World database! Best news? It's free for everyone: 
About the Editor

Paul Finkelman is a specialist in American legal history, constitutional law, and race and the law. He is the author of more than 200 scholarly articles and 40 books, and his pieces have appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, USA Today, and on Huffington Post. His book, Slavery in the Courtroom, received the Joseph L. Andrews Award from the American Association of Law Libraries in 1986.

He is an expert on topics such as constitutional history and constitutional law, the legal history of slavery, civil liberties, freedom of religion,  and more. He has written extensively on Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln.

Professor Finkelman has been cited by the Supreme Court for his scholarship on racial equality and affirmative action, religious monuments in public spaces, public prayer and the Second Amendment, and he appeared as the chief expert witness in the Alabama Ten Commandments Monument case and the lawsuit over the ownership of Barry Bonds’ 73rd home run ball.

Read our Editor's Introduction here.
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