The monthly ACT ATOD Research eBulletin is a concise summary of newly-published research findings and other research activities of particular relevance to ATOD and allied workers in the ACT.
Its contents cover research on demand reduction, harm reduction and supply reduction; prevention, treatment and law enforcement. ATODA's Research eBulletin is a resource for keeping up-to-date with the evidence base underpinning our ATOD policy and practice.
The Canberra Satellite will focus on translating drug policy research into policy and practice. It will be an interactive event that will provide international and Australian perspectives on three key national and ACT drug policy priorities.
The three topics for discussion are:
The ISSDP is a society of scholars committed to advancing drug policy research. The ISSDP’s objectives are to: be a forum for high quality drug policy analysis; develop relations among drug policy analysts and thus strengthen the field; develop the scientific base for policy decisions; and improve the interface between researchers and policy makers.
The ISSDP achieves this through its annual scholarly international conference, which is being held for the first time in Australia from 16-18 May 2016 in Sydney.
The ISSDP Conference is a unique occasion to present your latest findings to an intellectually engaged, diverse and dedicated scholarly community, and to immerse yourself in the state of the art research across the full spectrum of drug policy research, with the participation of leading international scholars.
This collection provides statistics relating to the number and characteristics of alleged offenders (hereafter referred to as "offenders") aged 10 years and over who have been proceeded against by police during the 12 month reference period 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015, as well as selected data for the reference periods 2008-09 through to 2013-14.
, for all offences, a total of 411,686 offenders (separate individuals) were proceeded against by police in Australia during 2014-15. This represented a 2% increase from the previous year and was a national offender rate of 2,001 offenders per 100,000 persons aged 10 years and over.
Nationally, the most prevalent principal offences in 2014-15 were illicit drug offences (19%), acts intended to cause injury (17%), public order offences (17%) and theft (17%).
there were 374 illicit drug offenders proceeded against by police in 2014-15, a rate of 111/100,000 population, a rate far lower than the national one of 384/100,000. 14% of offenders had an illicit drug offence as their principal offence, compared with public order offences 24%, acts intended to cause injury 20% and theft 12%.
Over the six years since 2008-09, the number of offenders has increased by 56%, from 239 to 374. The offender rate increased by 43%, from 78/100,000 to 111/100,000, as shown in the following table.
In the ACT in the 2014-15 year, 71% of the illicit drug offenders had the principal offence of possess and/or use drugs, and just 14% manufacture or cultivate illicit drugs and 12% deal or traffic in illicit drugs. The corresponding national figures are 66%, 8% and 8%. In other words, a higher proportion of illicit drug offenders proceeded against by police in the ACT during the year were minor drug offenders than was the case nationally.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016, Recorded crime, offenders, 2014-15, cat. no. 4519.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4519.0.
Comment: ATODA is disturbed to see this year-on-year increase in the number and rate of illicit drug offenders being proceeded against by police. The magnitude of the increase—more than doubling in six years—raises questions that demand answers. Are the main drivers of this increase in reported illicit drug offending (mainly possession and use of drugs) changes in 1) policing policies and/or policing practices, 2) changes in levels and/or patterns of offending (perhaps linked to methamphetamine possession and use), or 3) some combinations of these? And to what extent is it both fair and cost-effective for such a large proportion of ACT Policing’s drug law enforcement effort to be directed at drug consumers rather than drug providers?
What are the trends in the number of regular and dependent methamphetamine users in Australia?
: To estimate the number of regular and dependent methamphetamine users in Australia.
: Indirect prevalence estimates were made for each year from 2002–03 to 2013–14. We applied multiplier methods to data on treatment episodes for amphetamines (eg, counselling, rehabilitation, detoxification) and amphetamine-related hospitalisations to estimate the numbers of regular (at least monthly) and dependent methamphetamine users for each year. Dependent users comprised a subgroup of those who used the drug regularly, so that estimates of the sizes of these two populations were not additive.
: We estimated that during 2013–14 there were 268 000 regular methamphetamine users…and 160 000 dependent users…aged 15–54 years in Australia. This equated to population rates of 2.09%...for regular and 1.24%...for dependent use. The rate of dependent use had increased since 2009–10 (when the rate was estimated to be 0.74%), and was higher than the previous peak (1.22% in 2006–07). The highest rates were consistently among those aged 25–34 years, in whom the rate of dependent use during 2012–2013 was estimated to be 1.50%...There had also been an increase in the rate of dependent use among those aged 15–24 years (in 2012–13 reaching 1.14%...).
: There have been increases over the past 12 years in the numbers of regular and dependent methamphetamine users in Australia. Our estimates suggest that the most recent numbers are the highest for this period, and that the increase has been most marked among young adults (those aged 15–34 years).
: There is an increasing need for health services to engage with people who have developed problems related to their methamphetamine use.
Degenhardt, L, Larney, S, Chan, G, Dobbins, T, Weier, M, Roxburgh, A, Hall, WD & McKetin, R 2016, 'Estimating the number of regular and dependent methamphetamine users in Australia, 2002–2014', Medical Journal of Australia
, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 153, open access https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2016/204/4/estimating-number-regular-and-dependent-methamphetamine-users-australia-02-4
Comment: In recent years much reliance for information on trends in methamphetamine use has been placed on the AIHW National Drug Strategy Household Surveys which have shown (up to the most recently-published data, that for the 2013 survey) that the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Australia has not changed significantly over some years. That observation is challenged by data showing large increases in arrests of people who use methamphetamine and methamphetamine-related hospital presentations and specialised drug treatment occasions of care. This study, along with studies of drug residues in waste-water, confirm that there have been significant increases in methamphetamine use in Australia. We are not seeing simply a shift from use of the powder form to the crystalline form.
The substantial increase in the proportion of users who are methamphetamine dependent warrants urgent attention with respect to specialised drug treatment service provision, case finding, and early interventions.
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What does the accumulating body of research into supervised injection facilities tell us?
Resistance still exists in many quarters to drug harm reduction, including the use of supervised injecting facilities. Only one such service operates in Australia, the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre in King's Cross. In 1999 the ACT legislated to establish such a facility in Canberra, but the facility was not proceeded with. Researchers have undertaken a systematic review of the scientific evidence about supervised injecting facilities, noting that ‘Supervised injection services (SISs) have been developed to promote safer drug injection practices, enhance health-related behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID), and connect PWID with external health and social services. Nevertheless, SISs have also been accused of fostering drug use and drug trafficking.’
The reviewers located 75 relevant articles. ‘All studies converged to find that SISs were efficacious in attracting the most marginalized PWID, promoting safer injection conditions, enhancing access to primary health care, and reducing the overdose frequency. SISs were not found to increase drug injecting, drug trafficking or crime in the surrounding environments. SISs were found to be associated with reduced levels of public drug injections and dropped syringes. Of the articles, 85% originated from Vancouver or Sydney.’ This led to the conclusion that ‘SISs have largely fulfilled their initial objectives without enhancing drug use or drug trafficking. Almost all of the studies found in this review were performed in Canada or Australia, whereas the majority of SISs are located in Europe. The implementation of new SISs in places with high rates of injection drug use and associated harms appears to be supported by evidence.’
Potier, C, Laprévote, V, Dubois-Arber, F, Cottencin, O & Rolland, B 2016, 'Supervised injection services: what has been demonstrated? A systematic literature review
', Drug & Alcohol Dependence
, vol. 145, pp. 48-68.
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What is the effect of continued cannabis use after the onset of psychosis?
A systematic review and meta-analysis summarised available evidence focusing on the relationship between continued and discontinued cannabis use after onset of psychosis and its relapse. The researchers found that ‘…continued cannabis users had a greater increase in relapse of psychosis than did both non-users and discontinued users, as well as longer hospital admissions than non-users. By contrast, cannabis discontinuation was not associated with relapse. Meta-regression suggested greater effects of continued cannabis use than discontinued use on relapse, positive symptoms and level of functioning but not on negative symptoms’. They concluded ‘Continued cannabis use after onset of psychosis predicts adverse outcome, including higher relapse rates, longer hospital admissions, and more severe positive symptoms than for individuals who discontinue cannabis use and those who are non-users. These findings point to reductions in cannabis use as a crucial interventional target to improve outcome in patients with psychosis’.
Schoeler, T, Monk, A, Sami, MB, Klamerus, E, Foglia, E, Brown, R, Camuri, G, Altamura, AC, Murray, R & Bhattacharyya, S 2016, ‘Continued versus discontinued cannabis use in patients with psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
’, The Lancet Psychiatry
, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 215-25.
What does the literature tell us about the effect of crisis intervention teams to reduce arrests of people suffering from mental illness?
A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken of the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT), a widely adopted program implemented in police forces and/or health departments in a number of jurisdictions, including the ACT. Their aims include reducing the rates of incarceration of people experiencing mental health crises, and to train officers about mental illness. The findings of this review and meta-analysis ‘reveal null effects of CITs on arrests of persons with mental illness and on police officer safety’. The researchers state that ‘These results do not suggest that CIT programs should be discontinued’ and discuss potential improvements to program implementation and evaluation, such as comparing outcomes between officers trained in CIT and those not trained in the program. They suggest that ‘evaluation studies should at least attempt to match control and treatment groups, and utilize both pre-and post-intervention measures’.
Taheri, SA 2016, ‘Do crisis intervention teams reduce arrests and improve officer safety? A systematic review and meta-analysis
’, Criminal Justice Policy Review
, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 76-96.
Comment: The relevance this article to the AOD sector is that many of the people whom Crisis Intervention Teams aim to assist are those experiencing distress, often demonstrating psychosis -like symptoms, as a consequence of the use of psychoactive substances. Considering the clear potential benefits of these Teams, sound evaluation research into their effectiveness is clearly warranted.
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How strong is the link between homelessness and substance use, and what is the direction of causality?
A team of researchers investigated the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the Australian panel dataset ‘Journeys Home’, collected in four surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Their data cover over 1,000 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. They found that homelessness and the use of psychoactive substances ‘…are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless’.
McVicar, D, Moschion, J & van Ours, JC 2015, ‘From substance use to homelessness or vice versa
?’, Social Science and Medicine
, vol. 136-137, pp. 89-98.
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To what extent can a criminal justice alcohol abstention program have public health benefits?
Criminal justice alcohol abstention programs which require participants to abstain from alcohol and submit to frequent alcohol testing with swift, certain, and modest sanctions for violations, have been adopted in a number of places, with the aim to reduce crime and keep alcohol-involved offenders in the community. Researchers examined the 24/7 Sobriety programme in South Dakota, USA, to determine whether or not it was associated with changes in mortality. They found ‘Between January, 2005, and June, 2011, 16 932 people (about 3% of the adult population) participated in the 24/7 Sobriety programme…Implementation of 24/7 Sobriety was associated with a 4.2% reduction in all-cause adult mortality, with the largest associations among women and individuals older than 40 years. Associations were most evident among circulatory disorders.’ They concluded that ‘24/7 Sobriety might have public health benefits, which could extend beyond individuals directly enrolled in the programme’.
Nicosia, N, Kilmer, B & Heaton, P 2016, ‘Can a criminal justice alcohol abstention programme with swift, certain, and modest sanctions (24/7 Sobriety) reduce population mortality? A retrospective observational study
’, The Lancet Psychiatry
, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 226-32.
Comment: As part of the ACT Government’s Justice Reform Strategy, people in the ACT AOD, justice and related areas have been examining options for developing, in this jurisdiction, a pilot project to explore the application of swift, certain and fair principles to local criminal justice procedures, with one of its central aims being reduction in criminal offending recidivism. ATODA is actively involved in this policy work which is being led by the Justice and Community Safety Directorate.
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How common in Australia are the diversion of buprenorphine-naloxone film, and the injection of drugs designed for oral or sublingual use?
Two years of post-marketing surveillance of the diversion and injection of buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) film following its introduction in 2011 was conducted by means of interviews with people who inject drugs regularly (PWID), opioid substitution therapy clients, and key experts, to calculate the extent of unsanctioned removal of supervised doses, diversion, injection and street price. The findings were that ‘Among out-of-treatment PWID, the levels of regular (weekly+) BNX film injection were comparable to methadone and BNX tablets, and lower than mono-buprenorphine, adjusting for background availability. Fewer BNX film clients regularly injected their medication than mono-buprenorphine clients, but at levels equivalent to those among methadone and BNX tablet clients. Key experts perceived BNX film needed less supervised dosing time as it dissolved rapidly and was harder to remove from the mouth than sublingual tablets; however, removal of supervised doses was higher among BNX film clients than methadone clients, and not significantly different from BNX tablet and mono-buprenorphine clients’. The conclusions of the study were that ‘Two years post-introduction, levels of BNX film diversion and injection remained comparable with those for methadone and BNX tablets, and lower than mono-buprenorphine. We found no evidence that BNX film has lower non-adherence and diversion than the tablet formulation’.
Larance, B, Mattick, R, Ali, R, Lintzeris, N, Jenkinson, R, White, N, Kihas, I, Cassidy, R & Degenhardt, L 2016, ‘Diversion and injection of buprenorphine–naloxone film two years post-introduction in Australia
’, Drug and Alcohol Review
, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 83-91.
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What's the latest regarding prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people?
Researchers did a systematic review of reviews with evidence on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of problem use in young people for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, or cocaine). Taxation, public consumption bans, advertising restrictions, and minimum legal age are effective measures to reduce alcohol and tobacco use, but are not available to target illicit drugs. Interpretation of the available evidence for school-based prevention is affected by methodological issues; interventions that incorporate skills training are more likely to be effective than information provision—which is ineffective. Social norms and brief interventions to reduce substance use in young people do not have strong evidence of effectiveness. Roadside drug testing and interventions to reduce injection-related harms have a moderate-to-large effect, but additional research with young people is needed. Scarce availability of research on interventions for problematic substance use in young people indicates the need to test interventions that are effective with adults in young people. Existing evidence is from high-income countries, with uncertain applicability in other countries and cultures and in subpopulations differing in sex, age, and risk status. Concerted efforts are needed to increase the evidence base on interventions that aim to reduce the high burden of substance use in young people.
Stockings, E, Hall, WD, Lynskey, M, Morley, KI, Reavley, N, Strang, J, Patton, G & Degenhardt, L 2016, ‘Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people’, The Lancet Psychiatry
, online ahead of print, open access http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366%2816%2900002-X/fulltext
Comment: This is a particularly valuable overview of current knowledge about interventions with young people. The authors expand on their comment about roadside alcohol and illicit drug testing, quoted above, writing that ‘Most evidence regarding the eﬀectiveness of random roadside drug testing has focused on alcohol. Drink driving checkpoints have been consistently shown to reduce alcohol-related vehicle crashes and fatal crashes attributable to alcohol. Furthermore, reductions in the legal blood alcohol content seems to reduce alcohol-related injuries and deaths in people aged 18–25 years. No controlled evaluations of roadside testing for illicit drugs have been completed.’
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How effective is telephone-based counselling in substance abuse treatment compared with other types of treatment?
In a comparison of telephone-based continuing care with traditional face-to-face counselling for clients in treatment for substance use disorders, patients with alcohol and/or cocaine dependence were assigned to one of three 12-week interventions: standard continuing care (STD), in-person relapse prevention (RP), or telephone-based continuing care (TEL). The study found that ‘TEL was less expensive per client from the societal perspective ($569) than STD ($870) or RP ($1684). TEL also was also significantly more effective, with an abstinence rate of 57.1% compared to 46.7% for STD. Thus TEL dominated STD, with a highly favorable negative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (−$1400 per abstinent year). TEL also proved favorable under a benefit-cost perspective’. The researchers concluded that ‘TEL proved to be a cost-effective and cost-beneficial contributor to long-term recovery over two years’.
Shepard, DS, Daley, MC, Neuman, MJ, Blaakman, AP & McKay, JR 2016, ‘Telephone-based continuing care counseling in substance abuse treatment: economic analysis of a randomized trial
’, Drug and Alcohol Dependence
, vol. 159, pp. 109-16.
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How effective is compulsory treatment for drug dependence?
A systematic review was conducted of studies assessing the effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment. The researchers found that ‘Three studies (33%) reported no significant impacts of compulsory treatment compared with control interventions. Two studies (22%) found equivocal results but did not compare against a control condition. Two studies (22%) observed negative impacts of compulsory treatment on criminal recidivism. Two studies (22%) observed positive impacts of compulsory inpatient treatment on criminal recidivism and drug use’. The conclusion was that ‘There is limited scientific literature evaluating compulsory drug treatment. Evidence does not, on the whole, suggest improved outcomes related to compulsory treatment approaches, with some studies suggesting potential harms. Given the potential for human rights abuses within compulsory treatment settings, non-compulsory treatment modalities should be prioritized by policymakers seeking to reduce drug-related harms’.
Werb, D, Kamarulzaman, A, Meacham, MC, Rafful, C, Fischer, B, Strathdee, SA & Wood, E 2016, ‘The effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment: a systematic review’, International Journal of Drug Policy
, vol. 28, pp. 1-9, open access http://www.ijdp.org/article/S0955-3959%2815%2900358-8/fulltext
Comment: This review is particularly timely considering the current calls, in some circles, for the compulsory treatment of people with problematic use of methamphetamine. It is disappointing that so few quality studies of the impacts of compulsory treatment are being conducted.
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How cost-effective is it to provide financial incentives for pregnant women to stop smoking?
A randomised controlled trial in Glascow investigated the cost-effectiveness of up to £400 worth of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Over 600 pregnant women were randomised to receive usual cessation support plus or minus financial incentives of up to £400 vouchers contingent upon smoking cessation. The measurements were ‘Comparison of usual support and incentive interventions in terms of cotinine-validated quitters, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct costs to the NHS [National Health Service]’. The findings were ‘The incremental cost per quitter at 34-38 weeks pregnant was £1127…The life-time model resulted in an incremental cost of £17 and a gain of 0.04 QALYs’. The researchers concluded that ‘Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy are highly cost-effective, with an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years of £482, which is well below recommended decision thresholds’.
Boyd, KA, Briggs, AH, Bauld, L, Sinclair, L & Tappin, D 2016, ‘Are financial incentives cost-effective to support smoking cessation during pregnancy?
, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 360-70.
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How commonly do emergent department clinicians experience alcohol-related aggression from patients?
An online survey of hospital emergency department (ED) clinicians in Australia and New Zealand in 2014 sought information on the frequency of aggression from alcohol-affected patients or their carers experienced by ED staff, and the perceived impact of alcohol-related presentations on ED function, waiting times, other patients and staff. Over two thousand staff completed the survey. ‘Alcohol-related verbal aggression from patients had been experienced in the past 12 months by 97.9% of respondents, and physical aggression by 92.2%. ED nurses were the group most likely to have felt unsafe because of the behaviour of these patients (92% reported such feelings). Alcohol-related presentations were perceived to negatively or very negatively affect waiting times (noted by 85.5% of respondents), other patients in the waiting room (94.4%), and the care of other patients (88.3%). Alcohol-affected patients were perceived to have a negative or very negative impact on staff workload (94.2%), wellbeing (74.1%) and job satisfaction (80.9%)’. The researchers concluded that ‘Verbal and physical aggression by alcohol-affected patients is commonly experienced by ED clinical staff. This has a negative impact on the care of other patients, as well as on staff wellbeing. Managers of health services must ensure a safe environment for staff and patients. More importantly, a comprehensive public health approach to changing the prevailing culture that tolerates alcohol-induced unacceptable behaviour is required’.
Egerton-Warburton, D, Gosbell, A, Wadsworth, A, Moore, K, Richardson, DB & Fatovich, DM 2016, ‘Perceptions of Australasian emergency department staff of the impact of alcohol-related presentations’, Medical Journal of Australia
, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 155, open access https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2016/204/4/perceptions-australasian-emergency-department-staff-impact-alcohol-related
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What evidence is there that parental drinking influences children's drinking?
A systematic review of studies of associations between parental and offspring alcohol consumption in the general population included 21 studies comprising over 25,000 families. The researchers found that ‘Four of the 21 included studies filled several, but not all, criteria [for inclusion in the review] and were assessed to have some capacity for causal inference. These four studies found some evidence that parental drinking predicted drinking behaviour in adolescent offspring. The remaining 17 studies had little or no such capacity’. They concluded that ‘There is a fairly large and consistent literature demonstrating that more parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring. Despite this, existing evidence is insufficient to warrant causal inferences at this stage’.
Rossow, I, Keating, P, Felix, L & McCambridge, J 2016, ‘Does parental drinking influence children’s drinking? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies
, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 204-17.
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What are young people's impressions of alcohol advertising on Facebook?
: To explore young people’s perceptions of alcohol advertising on Facebook and investigate perceived compliance with the Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC).
An online cross-sectional survey with 172 Australians aged 16-29 years recruited from a market research website and via Facebook. They compiled advertisements from six popular alcohol brands’ Australian Facebook pages and asked respondents for their perceptions and interpretations in open and closed-ended questions.
Open-ended responses most commonly indicated that the main messages of the advertisements related to social success. In closed-ended questions, respondents perceived advertisements implied that alcohol facilitated relaxation (67%), improved mood (65%), social success (57%) and confidence (49%).
: Young people identified the main themes of alcohol advertising on Facebook as related to social success and significant improvement in mood. Young people’s interpretations of Facebook alcohol advertising suggest breaches of ABAC guidelines. Strengthening the enforcement and application of the ABAC and social media alcohol advertising policies is justified.
Weaver, ERN, Wright, CJC, Dietze, PM & Lim, MSC 2016, ‘“A drink that makes you feel happier, relaxed and loving”: young people’s perceptions of alcohol advertising on Facebook
’, Alcohol and Alcoholism
(Oxford, Oxfordshire), online ahead of print.
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How has the theme of 'partnerships' been developed and been implemented in Australian drug policy governance?
Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government ‘partnerships’, tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. They find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government ‘partnerships’ rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to ‘community’ responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. They link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although they find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery.
Thomas, N, Bull, M, Dioso-Villa, R & Smith, C 2016, ‘Governing drug use through partnerships: towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy
’, International Journal of Drug Policy
, vol. 28, pp. 34-42.
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ACT Government 2016, Road Safety Action Plan 2016-2020, ACT Government, Canberra, http://www.justice.act.gov.au/safety_and_emergency/road_safety/act_road_safety_strategy_and_action_plans.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Henley, G & Harrison, J 2015, Trends in serious injury due to road vehicle traffic crashes, Australia 2001 to 2010, Injury Research and Statistics Series no. 89. Cat. no. INJCAT 165, Australian Institute of Health & Welfare, Canberra, http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129554605.
Drug Policy Monitoring Program 2016, Drug law reform annotated bibliography, put together by the Drug Policy Monitoring Program 2016, DPMP, Sydney, https://dpmp.unsw.edu.au/resource/drug-law-reform-annotated-bibliography-2016.
Fitzgerald, M 2016, Three ways to improve transitions from detox to continuing care, ATTC NIATx, http://attcniatx.blogspot.com.au/2016/03/three-ways-to-improve-transitions-from.html.
Hughes, C, Ritter, A, Chalmers, J, Lancaster, K, Barratt, MJ & Moxham-Hall, VL 2016, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – a briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, Sydney, https://dpmp.unsw.edu.au/resource/decriminalisation-drug-use-and-possession-australia-%E2%80%93-briefing-note.
Marel, C, MacLean, S & Midford, R 2015, Review of volatile substance use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, http://www.aodknowledgecentre.net.au/aodkc/volatile-substance-use/reviews/volatile-substance-use.
NHS Health Scotland 2016, Monitoring and evaluating Scotland’s Alcohol Strategy: final Annual Report March 2016, NHS Health Scotland, Edinburgh, http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/26884.aspx.
Pepper, M & Dawson, P 2016, Alcohol Abstinence Monitoring Requirement: a process review of the proof of concept pilot, MOPAC Evidence and Insight Unit, London, https://www.london.gov.uk/press-releases/mayoral/crackdown-against-alcohol-related-crime.
The Royal Australasian College of Physicians & The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016, Alcohol Policy, March 2016, the Colleges, Sydney, https://www.racp.edu.au/news-and-events/all-news/news-details?id=6fcd52af-bbb2-61c2-b08b-ff00001c3177.
van der Meulen, E, Claivaz-Loranger, S, Clarke, S, Ollner, A & Watson, TM 2016, On point: recommendations for prison-based needle and syringe programs in Canada, Ryerson University Department of Criminology, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Prisoners with HIV/AIDS Support Action Network (PASAN), Toronto, http://www.aidslaw.ca/site/on-point-recommendations-for-prison-based-needle-and-syringe-programs-in-canada/.
Wodak, A & McDonald, D 2016, ‘What would effective, fair and just drug-driving laws look like?’, The Conversation, 26 February, https://theconversation.com/what-would-effective-fair-and-just-drug-driving-laws-look-like-55379.
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