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New York City cracks down on CBD edibles saying the cannabis derivative is unsafe

Last Friday, health inspectors sealed up the supply of CBD infused baked goods at a New York City restaurant, Fat Cat Kitchen, and told the owner to stop selling them.
The move is part of a city-wide embargo its Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has levied on food products containing CBD. The department says New York City restaurants are not “permitted to add anything to food or drink that is not approved as safe to eat” and that CBD has not been deemed safe as a food additive.
CBD is made from hemp, a part of the marijuana plant that contains no more than three-tenths of one percent THC. The Food and Drug Administration says CBD may not be sold as a dietary supplement or in foods that cross state lines.
Other states are taking similar steps. Recently, Maine health officials ordered businesses to remove CBD-infused products from stores in that state, as have officials in Ohio.

Read New York Times story here.

A randomized controlled trial of vaporized
THC and CBD alone and in combination
in frequent and infrequent cannabis users:
acute intoxication effects
In this study, published in the European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Australian researchers say both THC and CBD are psychoactive, but only THC is considered to be intoxicating.
They conducted a randomized placebo controlled trial in which they administered various doses of both cannabinoids in vaporizers to a group of 36 frequent and infrequent cannabis users once a week for five weeks. Drugs administered were:
  • Placebo vs 400 mg CBD alone
  • 8 mg THC alone vs 8 mg THC combined with 4 mg CBD
  • 8 mg THC alone vs 8 mg THC combined with 400 mg CBD 
Primary outcomes were objective (blind observer ratings) and subjective (self-rated) measures of intoxication.
CBD showed some intoxicating properties compared to placebo. Low doses of CBD combined with THC enhanced intoxicating effects, while high CBD doses combined with THC reduced them. The enhancement of intoxication by low CBD doses was pronounced in infrequent cannabis users across both measures.
The researchers say their findings “are important to consider in terms of recommended proportions of THC and CBD in cannabis plant matter whether used medicinally or recreationally and have implications for novice or less experienced cannabis users.”
Read study abstract here.

AHA: Marijuana, cocaine may play role
in young Americans’ rising stroke rate
A study to be presented next week at the American Stroke Association’s International Stroke Conference in Honolulu, investigated trends in illegal drug use among people ages 18-54 who had had a stroke.
Researchers looked at 20 years of drug tests and self-reported data from 2,200 young adults in greater Cincinnati and northern Kentucky who had suffered a stroke. Alcohol and cigarette use remained stable during that time, but illegal drug use rose from 4.4 percent in 1993-1994 to 30.3 percent in 2015.
A cardiologist not involved in the study says, “Marijuana has been linked to heart attacks and strokes, which is something that shocks a lot of people.” As marijuana use grows with legalization, he continues, people should realize there may be health consequences down the road.
Doctors need to talk to patients about the risks of using any illegal drug, say that researchers.
Read the American Heart Association Health News story here.

Depressive symptoms and suicidality
in adolescents using e-cigarettes and marijuana:

A secondary data analysis from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Researchers conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2015 and 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
They note that adolescent e-cigarette use and daily marijuana use have undergone a steady increase over the past five years. That period coincides with an historic rise in depression and suicidal ideation among adolescents.
In a sample of 26,821 teens, 9.1 percent used e-cigarettes only, 9.7 used marijuana only, and 10.2 percent used both. All three kinds of use were associated with increased odds of reporting depression and suicidal ideation.
The researchers say there is a need for effective prevention and intervention to help mitigate adverse mental health problems among teenagers.
Read study abstract from the Journal of Addiction Medicine here.

Should physicians recommend
replacing opioids with cannabis?
In this week’s Journal of the American Medical Association, prominent experts in the field of addiction take states to task for authorizing the substitution of marijuana for opioids to treat pain and addiction when evidence fails to support such action.  
Keith Humphries, PhD, of Stanford University and Richard Saitz, MD, MPH, of the Boston University School of Public Health, say recent systematic reviews identified low-strength evidence that plant-based marijuana preparations reduce neuropathic pain and insufficient evidence for other types of pain. Further, these studies do not address the most common forms of pain such as back pain.
The evidence that marijuana is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder is even weaker. To date, no prospective evidence from clinical trials or observational studies has demonstrated any benefit for treating opioid addiction with marijuana.
If marijuana is a recommended medicine, it should be held to medical standards, they write. Marijuana and marijuana-derived medications merit further research, but that does not mean that medical marijuana recommendations should be made without the evidence base demanded for other treatments.
Read JAMA Viewpoint here.

The Marijuana Report is a weekly e-newsletter published by National Families in Action in partnership with SAM (Smart Approaches to Marijuana).

Visit National Families in Action's website, The Marijuana Report.Org, to learn more about the marijuana story unfolding across the nation.

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The Marijuana Report Staff
Executive Editor
Sue Rusche
Nicole Carter
IT Consultant
Lee Clontz
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Margarita Eberline
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Attorney (Ret.), Lakewood Ranch, Florida
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Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta

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United Parcel Service, Atlanta.
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